Baca juga :
ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE AND THE ORIGINS OF HUMAN LANGUAGE
By : Alissa
Definition Of Language
Based on Wayne Waiten said that “A language consists of symbols that convey meanings plus rules for combining those symbols, that can be used to generate an infinite variety of messages” its mean that when a language consist of symbols and conveying the meaning, it will be produce the messages.
There are several ways to conveying of communicating ideas by using language. That are human speech, the expression of ideas by the voice, sounds and expressive of thought, articulated by the organs of the throat and mouth. The expression of ideas by writing or any other instrumentality.
Definitions of language is the inarticulate sounds by which animals inferior to man express their feelings or their wants. In another definition from Merriam Webster said that “the system of words or signs that people use to express thoughts and feelings to each other”. So, we can conclude that language is the inarticulate sounds of the system of words or signs that poeple use to express their feeling or their want.
How Language Came Into Being
It can't be proven that language is as old as humans, but it is definitely true that language and human society are inseparable. Wherever humans exist, language exists. Every stone age tribe ever encountered has a language equal to English, Latin, or Greek in terms of its expressive potential and grammatical complexity.
As what Bernard Campbell says in “Humankind Emerging”, that "We simply do not know, and never will, how or when language began." So that, we can’t prove that when the language is begin, because for the old era, language has been there much of the development of the language itself today.
But, According to Islam, Words of God in his word: “We never sent a prophet, but with the language of his people, so that he can explain clearly to them. So God astray whom He pleases, and gives guidance to whom He will. and He is God Almighty, the Wise.” (QS. Ibrahim, 4). Actually admitted that the language is "From God" (tawqīf), quoting Q 2:31, "And indeed Allah taught Adam the names (Asma ') of All Things.
Then, Language has been there since Prophet Adam a.s came to this world and has inherited the language of science because God confirms that Adam has been used as an intermediary language gets knowledge of the entire universe.
How Might Humans Have Devised The First Language
Based on Five of the oldest and most common theories of how language began:
1) The Bow-Wow Theory, Language began when our ancestors started imitating the natural sounds around them. The first speech was onomatopoeic --marked by echoic words such as moo, meow, splash, cuckoo, and bang.
2) The Ding-Dong Theory Plato and Pythagoras, maintains that speech arose in response to the essential qualities of objects in the environment. The original sounds people made were supposedly in harmony with the world around them
3) The La-La Theory, The Danish linguist Otto Jespersen suggested that language may have developed from sounds associated with love, play, and (especially) song.
4) The Pooh-Pooh Theory, This theory holds that speech began with interjections spontaneous cries of pain ("Ouch!"), surprise ("Oh!"), and other emotions ("Yabba dabba do!").
5) The Yo-He-Ho Theory, According to this theory, language evolved from the grunts, groans, and snorts evoked by heavy physical labor.
How language developed a complex grammar remains a complete mystery. This means that how language developed is equally a mystery. We simply don't know how language may have actually evolved from simple animal systems of sounds and gestures.
THE ORIGINS OF HUMAN LANGUAGE
Many experts have given a definition of the language, Sapir (1921), for example, stated that the language … is a purely human and non-instinctive method of communicating ideas, emotions and desires by means of voluntarily produced symbols. This means that the language is only used by humans and become a tool for expressing opinions, feelings and desires through symbols.
Hall (1968) adds that the language is the institution whereby humans communicate and interact with each other by means of habitually used oral-auditory arbitrary symbols. Finally, among the human language is a tool to communicate, interact, express, express their opinion / ideas, and to transmit culture to the next generation.
As what has been described above regarding the definition of language, the language is something that can be understood in the communication process. This refers to the shape and how language is used by humans. It is said that the language is used more oral than written language. The first time people use sign language to communicate and eventually long evolved into understandable language.
So it is with written language. Primitive people have started communicating with their writings can be found in the relics, such as inscriptions. And time is very important in the development of human language as the development of human evolution itself.
The anthropologists concluded that humans and language developed together. Human beings are on earth approximately one million years old. The factors affecting the development of Homo sapien also affects language development. They have the ability to find and use the tools and began to speak. In other words, language arises.
There are various predictions and theories presented by experts on the origins of human language, but no theory can really be proven until now. Among those theories are based on the theory of religion (divine origin), and theories based on science (natural evolution hypothesis).
The Origin of Language in the view of Islam
The language is the instrument to articulate these three issues. So that the language is just the media or instrument, he was not the goal. On this basis, then every prophet was sent to his people by using the people’s language. As word of God in his word: “We never sent a prophet, but with the language of his people, so that he can explain clearly to them. So God astray whom He pleases, and gives guidance to whom He will. and He is God Almighty, the Wise.” (QS. Ibrahim, 4)
To those adherents of Islam above verse is believed that the language be controlled by humans on earth is a creation of God. So that could be concluded that the diversity of language is the characteristic of the earth. However, it should be noted that the Qur’an and Sunnah which are the two main sources of Islamic teachings and the message brought by Prophet Muhammad is using the Arabic language. So that mankind for adherents of Islam are obliged to follow this treatise indirectly to understand Arabic. However, whether Arabic became the language used by the first Adam and Eve, the statement can not be scientifically proven, and have not found an authentic evidence in the Qur’an.
However, Imam Shafi’i,ra. Said,” Allah, requires all mankind to learn Arabic, because the dialogue between God and mankind is through the Holy Qur’an (Arabic-speaking) and God set that recite Qur’an including forms of worship . (Hawwa, 1993). On the made of Arabic as the official language of Muslims does not mean delete and remove the other languages. This is because the Qur’an and Sunnah as a source of Islamic law is written in Arabic, then the knowledge of Arabic structure must be mastered by every moslem who will perform ijtihad.
The Origin Of Human Language In The View Of Science
1) Biological aspects of human
In biology, humans usually studied as one of the many species on earth. Learning human biology is also sometimes extended to the psychological aspects and physical aspect, but usually not to the spiritual or religious. In biology, the human is defined as hominids of the species Homo sapiens. The only remaining subspecies of Homo sapiens is Homo sapiens sapiens. They are usually regarded as the only species that can survive in the genus Homo. Humans use their tool of movement (two feet) perfectly. With both feet to move the body, both front legs can be used to manipulate the object using the thumb . Carolus Linnaeus classify the human species becomes.
From this classification of human belonging to homo sapiens (wise beings) and is suspected because of the large brain volume and function properly. Wise is able to think well and useful. Function that makes the brain has an important role in human positions such as homo sapiens. Then, the human brain believed to also as the forerunners of the creation of language.
2) Human brain and language
Referring to the biological aspects of humans, Referring to the biological aspects of humans, the appearance of language depends on the development of the human brain itself. In its evolution, the human brain develops, from the simple structure into a more developed structure of perfect (a sophisticated). This is what led to the discovery of language and language learning. Both were made possible because people believed in their brain has what is called LAD (language acquisition device) or the language acquisition device.
With regard to evolution, oral language (vocalization) and sign language (gestures) are inherited from previous generations of ancestors have been developed in such a way as to create the language system in the brain. According to the hypothesis of natural evolution, so be creative capacity of human language evolved both biologically and neurologically, the development of a certain system that changes shape to meaning will grow too.
We can conclude that the origin of human language has been there depends on the development of the humain brain itself are inherited from previous generations of ancestors have been developed in such a way as to create the language system in the brain.